Banks Peninsula lowland and mountain

Almost all of Banks Peninsula was once covered in native forest. Exceptions were very steep, exposed sites, and areas too swampy to support trees.

This forest, the result of many millions of years of land formation and evolution, had the same or similar plants species 20,000 years ago as we find today in the remaining reserves and vegetation remnants. However, at least 15 species have been lost.

Most of this forest was felled or burned during the first 50 years of European occupation.

Today the remnants of this ancient forest reflect their stage of regeneration and site characteristics such as altitude, aspect, soil type and proximity to the coast: podocarps occur on fertile valley floors, podocarp/hardwood forest on lower slopes, mountain tōtara grows above 500 metres, coastal forest (including the warmth-demanding species like ngaio and nīkau palm) and open tussockland occur on drier, north-facing slopes.

Source: Native plants natural to Banks Peninsula : DOC

Trees/Shrubs Grasses/Flaxes 
 Acaena anserinifolia (RO)  Aciphylla aurea (RO) taramea, golden Spaniard
 Acaena caesiglauca (RO)  Aciphylla subflabellata, kuri kuri, spear grass
 Anisotome aromatica (RO), pinakitere  Anemanthele lessoniana (R), wind grass
 Aristotelia fruticosa (RO), mountain wineberry  Arthropodium candidum (RO)
 Aristotelia serrata, makomako, wineberry  Astelia fragrans (M), kakaha, bush lily
 Brachyglottis lagopus  Carex forsteri
 Brachyglottis sciadophila, climbing groundsel  Carex geminata
 Carmichaelia australis  Carex solandri
 Carmichaelia kirkii, maukoro, scrambling broom (T)  Celmisia gracilenta (RO)
 Carpodetus serratus, putaputāwētā, marble leaf  Celmisia mackaui (RO) (E), Akaroa daisy
 Clematis afoliata   Chionochloa conspicua (M) hunangāmoho
 Clematis foetida   Chionochloa rigida (M)
 Clematis marata   Dianella nigra, turutu
 Clematis paniculata   Festuca actae, Banks Peninsula blue tussock
 Coprosma acerosa (RO)   Festuca novae-zelandiae, wī, fescue tussock
 Coprosma areolata  Libertia ixioides mikoikoi, NZ iris
 Coprosma crassifolia  Phormium cookianum, wharariki
 Coprosma linariifolia, yellow wood  Phormium tenax, harakeke, New Zealand flax
 Coprosma lucida  Poa cita, wï, silver tussock
 Coprosma propinqua, mingmingi  Poa colensoi
 Coprosma rhamnoides  Unicinia rubra (M)
 Coprosma rigida  Unicinia uncinata, hook sedge
 Coprosma robusta, karamü  Zotovia avenacea, pātītī, bush rice grass
 Coprosma rotundifolia, round-leaved coprosma  Austroderia richardii, toetoe **
 Coprosma rubra (M)  
 Coprosma sp. Taylorii  
 Coprosma virescens  
 Coprosma wallii (M) (T)   
 Cordyline australis, cabbage tree  
 Cordyline indivisa (M) (R), tī tōī, broad-leaved cabbage tree  
 Coriaria arborea  
 Corokia cotoneaster, korokio  
 Cyathodes juniperina (M)  
 Dacrycarpus dacrydioides, kahikatea, white pine  
 Discaria toumatou, tūmatakuru, matagouri  
 Dodonaea viscosa, akeake  
 Dracophyllum acerosum (M)  
 Elaeocarpus hookerianus, pōkākā  
 Fuchsia excorticata, kotukutuku, fuchsia  
 Fuchsia perscandens (RO) (R), kotukutuku, climbing fuchsia  
 Gaultheria antipoda (M)  
 Gaultheria depressa (M)  
 Griselinia littoralis, päpäuma, broadleaf  
 Hebe odora (RO), korokio, boxwood  
 Hebe salicifolia, koromiko  
 Hebe strictissima (E), koromiko  
 Hoheria angustifolia, houhi puruhi, narrow-leaved lacebark  
 Hoheria populnea var lanceolata (E), lacebark,houhere  
 Kunzea ericoides, känuka  
 Leptospermum scoparium, mänuka, tea tree  
 Lobelia angulata, pratia (RO)  
 Lophomyrtus obcordata, rōhutu, NZ myrtle  
 Macropiper excelsum, kawakawa, pepper tree  
 Melicytus micranthus  
 Melicytus alpinus, porcupine shrub  
 Melicytus ramiflorus, māhoe, whiteywood  
 Metrosideros diffusa (RO)  
 Myoporum laetum, ngaio  
 Myosotis australis var. “lytteltonensis” (RO) (T) (E)  
 Myrsine australis, red matipou  
 Myrsine divaricata, weeping matipou  
 Nothofagus fusca (M), tawhairaunui, red beech  
 Nothofagus solandri (M), tawhairauriki, black beech  
 Olearia arborescens (RO), common tree-daisy  
 Olearia avicenniaefolia (RO), akeake  
 Olearia bullata  
 Olearia fragrantissima (T), akeake  
 Olearia ilicifolia (M), hakeke, mountain holly  
 Olearia nummulariifolia (RO), akeake, shrub daisy  
 Olearia paniculata, akiraho, golden akeake  
 Parahebe lyallii (RO)  
 Pittosporum eugenioides, tarata, lemonwood  
 Pittosporum tenuifolium, köhühu, black matipo  
 Plagianthus regius, mänatu, ribbonwood  
 Podocarpus hallii (M), mountain tōtara  
 Podocarpus totara, tötara  
 Pseudopanax arboreus, whauwhaupaku, five finger  
 Pseudopanax colensoi (M), orihou, mountain five finger  
 Pseudopanax crassifolius, horoeka, lancewood  
 Pseudopanax ferox, fierce lancewood  
 Pseudowintera colorata, horopito, pepper tree  
 Raukaua anomalus, whauwhaupaku  
 Scleranthus uniflorus (RO)  
 Scleranthus biflorus  
 Sophora microphylla, köwhai  
 Sophora prostrata, dwarf köwhai  
 Teucridium parvifolium (T)  

PLANT NAME (T = threatened, R = rare, E = endemic to Banks Penisula, M = Banks Peninsula montane, RO = Banks Peninsula rock outcrops)